Music Theory Online

The Online Journal of the Society for Music Theory


Volume 6, Number 3, August, 2000
Copyright � 2000 Society for Music Theory

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Butterfield, Matthew W.. "Jazz Analysis and the Production of Musical Community: A Situational Perspective." University of Pennsylvania, 2000. 

AUTHOR: Butterfield, Matthew W.
: Jazz Analysis and the Production of Musical Community: A Situational Perspective
: University of Pennsylvania
: June, 1995
: May, 2000

The analysis of jazz embodies a contradiction between the solitary listening practices implied by conventional music analysis and the socially integrative nature of jazz performance events. This dissertation develops a rationale and method for the analysis of jazz that seeks to transcend this opposition. I formulate an interdisciplinary approach that I call "situational particularism" to explore the complex relationships between situational structure (a function of the social, economic, temporal, spatial, and acoustic organization of musical events), music perception, and social behavior. The configuration of these elements in each musical situation is shown to express a potential for the production of musical community. Unlike more conventional approaches to analysis, a situational perspective incorporates the special conditions of jazz performance and the athleticism of jazz improvisation within accounts of the particularity of individual performances.

Situational particularism recuperates and extends an analytical paradigm known as "particularism," which was defined and discredited by Matthew Brown and Douglas Dempster. It pursues an understanding of musical details beyond the general context stipulated by the "work-concept" to the actual events in which we encounter them. I draw on recent research in cognitive semantics to develop a novel theory of the musical object as a cognitive formation that emerges in musical situations. I then employ language and concepts of sociologist Erving Goffman to illuminate how participants frame their understanding of these situations, and how this understanding governs both perception and behavior. To illuminate these issues, I present case study analyses of two performances--one recorded and one live--by jazz bassist Ron Carter of his composition "Blues for D. P." I conclude by examining recent trends in jazz history in terms of the typical situations in which we listen to the music today. Jazz analysis is seen in this context as one of several factors that have worked toward the dissolution of local jazz communities outside of New York. As an analytical approach, by contrast, situational particularism finds its rationale in advocating for musical situations in which music can fulfill its "erotic" social potential--i.e., situations in which music serves an integrative social function.  

KEYWORDS: jazz, analysis, situational particularism, situationalism, musical community, Ron Carter, musical object, frame analysis, jazz education 

Introduction: Situational Particularism, 1
Chapter 1: Particularism, 12
Chapter 2: The Musical Object Revisited, 46
Chapter 3: Musical Community and the Musical Situation, 119
Chapter 4: Analysis: "Blues for D. P.", 170
Chapter 5: Conclusions: Situational Issues in Contemporary Jazz, 266
Appendix: Transcription of "Blues for D. P.", 304
Bibliography, 319

412 E. Fairlawn Dr.
Urbana, IL 61801

Turner, Mitchell M. "Toward a General Theory of Pitch Structure: Unity Between Horizontal and Vertical Pitch-Class Sets." University of Georgia, 1999.

AUTHOR: Turner, Mitchell M.
TITLE: Toward a General Theory of Pitch Structure: Unity Between Horizontal and Vertical Pitch-Class Sets
INSTITUTION: University of Georgia
BEGUN: January, 1994
COMPLETED: December, 1999

ABSTRACT: Reductive analysis, one of the most powerful tools available in music theory, allows insight into the inner workings of a musical composition and yields detailed views into its pitch structure. By using reductive technique, pitches may be placed into a systematic, hierarchical position. Whereas some pitches may be considered of low significance, others can be elevated, as appropriate, to illuminate an underlying structure. This type of analysis was, of course, the invention and the focus of the theories of Heinrich Schenker. Later theorists have attempted methods of analysis similar to Schenker's in post-tonal music, but the attempts, as shown below, usually fall short of providing the degree of insight that Schenker's method achieved.

This dissertation proposes a new and more thorough method for the determination of structural pitch-class sets (pc sets) in post-tonal music. I establish criteria for assessing the structural importance of pc sets for non-tonal works. After determining structural pc sets, they are used to produce a graphic, reductive analysis. In so doing, I devise a consistent method for the determination of structural pc sets that may allow the use of reductive analysis in post-tonal music.

This dissertation avoids the pitfalls of the earlier prolongational models, devising a method for showing pitch structures that are primarily contingent upon pitch. Appeals to the ear are limited to the segmentation of pitches for analysis. The present study provides the foundation for a general theory of pitch structure analysis of post-tonal music by establishing a primary assumption regarding atonal stability conditions and showing a consistent methodology for the determination of pitch structure. Chapters 2 through 4 establish the primary assumption and details of my theory of pitch structure. Chapter 5 shows how this theory is used through analyses of short works from the early atonal pieces of Arnold Schoenberg and Alban Berg, including sections from Schoenberg's Op.11, No.1, Op.19, No.2, and No.6, and Berg's song Op.2, No.2. Chapters 6 and 7 present a detailed analysis of mm. 372-409, the "Cradle Song," from Act I, Scene 3 of Berg's Wozzeck and a section from Act I, Scene 2 of Berg's Lulu respectively. Chapter 8 draws conclusions and offers speculation as to the future use of this theory.

KEYWORDS: Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Wozzeck, Lulu, Pitch-Class Set, Dyad, Voice Exchange, Music Theory, Linear Analysis, Prolongation, Horizontalization, Pitch Structure, Reductive Analysis, Graphic Analysis


Acknowledgements, iv
List of Figures, vi
List of Tables, ix
Chapter 1: Introduction, 1
Chapter 2: Linear/Vertical Pitch-Class Sets, 13
Chapter 3: Dyadic Motions, 47
Chapter 4: Application of Pitch Structures, 71
Chapter 5: Preliminary Analyses 84
Chapter 6: Analysis of the "Cradle Song" from Wozzeck, 112
Chapter 7: Analysis of the Sonata Recapitulation from Lulu, 138
Chapter 8: Implications for Future Research, 176
Glossary, 182
Bibliography, 185

Mitchell Turner
200 Hampton Park Dr. 
Athens, GA 30606

Zamzow, Beth Ann. "The Influence of the Liturgy on the Fifteenth-Century English Carols." University of Iowa, 2000.

AUTHOR: Zamzow, Beth Ann
TITLE: The Influence of the Liturgy on the Fifteenth-Century English Carols
INSTITUTION: The University of Iowa
BEGUN: June, 1998
COMPLETED: May, 2000

ABSTRACT: The poetry of the fifteenth-century English carols is permeated with quotations and paraphrases from the liturgy of the Use of Salisbury. The high level of erudition of the text authors is evident in the sensitive conflation of liturgical quotations and scriptural allusions and in the sophisticated constructions of the carol poetry. 

Music of the liturgy is incorporated into carols containing quotations of liturgical texts in about 35 percent of the repertory. The extent of a direct quotation ranges from an entire chant to selected phrases. Paraphrase by amplification involves ornamental insertions between quoted pitches; in contrast, paraphrase by reduction uses selected pitches to preserve the contour of the chant within the melodic and polyphonic fabric of the carol. Reflections of mode and other structural similarities represent a broad type of liturgical paraphrase and, in some cases, prove to be the most intellectually stimulating.

The dissertation is organized as follows: The introduction is an extensive analytical overview of the carol repertory at large. Part One is an apparatus through which as many liturgical, patristic and scriptural allusions as possible are identified and linked to a specific carol text; the texts are reproduced on the page preceding each apparatus. Presenting the texts in this format illustrates to the reader the high degree to which the carols are saturated with these allusions. Following the text apparatus are musical examples illustrating the plainchant quotations, paraphrases and other similarities in the music of 45 carols. Part Two is a set of essays designed to define the techniques and delineate the multifaceted issues of the quotation and paraphrase techniques. Each language combination is addressed as well as topics such as metrical and non-metrical liturgical source texts, the commonality of subject matter, and the levels of saturation. The appendices contain liturgical source texts, an alphabetical list of liturgical quotations in the carol poetry, and fresh translations of the Latin carols.

KEYWORDS: Sarum, Salisbury, mass, office, Latin, macaronic, English, quotation, paraphrase, hymn

  An Overview of the Repertory
  The Four Principal Carol Manuscript Sources
  The Musical Style of the 15th-Century Carol
  The Assignment of Mode in the Carol Music
  Counterpoint in the Carols
  Cadence Structures and Ornaments
  The Liturgy and the Church Year
  Foundations for Liturgical Texts
  The Use of Salisbury
  Review of the Scholarship

CHAPTER I. Carol Texts Ordered According to their Liturgical Associations
  Christmastide Saints
  Epiphany Carols
  Carols Related to the Virgin Mary
  Other Liturgies
  Secular Topics

CHAPTER II. Musical Examples of Quotation and Paraphrase

CHAPTER III. Quotation of Text
  The Latin Carols
  Liturgical Quotation in the Latin Carols
  The Macaronic Carols
  Liturgical Quotation in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER IV. Paraphrase of Text
  Latin Liturgical Paraphrase in the Latin Carols
  Paraphrased Latin Lines in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER V. Translation of Text
  The Extent of the English Poetry in the Macaronic Carols
  Translation of Liturgical Materials in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER VI. Quotation and Paraphrase of Music
  Range of Possibilities
  Direct Quotations
  Paraphrase by Amplification
  Paraphrase by Reduction
  Reflections of Mode, Contour and Cadence and Other Similarities

1269 Rainbow Blvd.
Hiawatha, Iowa, USA 52233
(319) 393-0049

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Updated 14 November, 2002