1. Leo Treitler, "'To Worship That Celestial Sound': Motives for Analysis," Journal of Musicology 1/2 (1982), 153. 

2. Kofi Agawu, Playing with Signs: A Semiotic Interpretation of Classic Music (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991; Robert Hatten, Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994); Gregory Karl, "Structuralism and Musical Plot," Music Theory Spectrum 19/1 (1997): 13-34.

3. Both quotations cited in Laurel Fay, Shostakovich: A Life, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 112. 

End of Footnotes