Music Theory Online
A Journal of Criticism, Commentary, Research, and Scholarship
Volume 6, Number 5, November 2000
Copyright � 2000 Society for Music Theory
Cutler, Timothy S., "Orchestration and the Analysis of Tonal Music: Interaction between Orchestration and Other Musical Parameters in Selected Symphonic Compositions, c. 1785-1835." Yale University, 2000.
AUTHOR: Cutler, Timothy S.
TITLE: Orchestration and the Analysis of Tonal Music: Interaction between Orchestration and Other Musical Parameters in Selected Symphonic Compositions, c. 1785-1835
INSTITUTION: Yale University
BEGUN: September 1997
COMPLETED: March 2000
ABSTRACT: The objective of this dissertation is to demonstrate that an orchestral composition cannot be fully understood without examining its scoring. Orchestration is a significant topic in a variety of scholarly fields, but music theory has been slow to recognize its importance. It is essential to consider the timbral and textural aspects of an orchestral composition. However, one cannot study the parameter of orchestration in isolation. Meaningful analysis is only achieved by examining orchestration in conjunction with other musical parameters. It is the interaction between scoring and other parameters--form, tonal structure, motivic development, register, voice leading, etc.--that offers the most interesting insights.
This dissertation illustrates the analytical relevance of orchestration through the study of symphonic compositions by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, and Mendelssohn. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to theoretical and historical issues, including the question of whether orchestration can be codified. The many roles and guises of orchestration are investigated. Historical issues, such as the evolution of instruments and orchestral ensembles, are discussed, and documentation is cited which suggests that instrumentation is far more than a decorative afterthought in the compositional process. Because the analytical approach employed in this study is largely Schenkerian, one chapter is devoted to Heinrich Schenker's analytical conception of orchestration, drawn from his writings and analyses.
Later chapters focus on analytical demonstrations of the interaction between orchestration and other musical parameters. Compositions analyzed include Haydn's Symphonies nos. 83, 99, and 100 and "Chaos" from The Creation, Mozart's Symphony no. 40, Beethoven's Symphonies nos. 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9, Schubert's Symphony no. 8, and Mendelssohn's Symphony no. 4 and "Hebrides" Overture.
KEYWORDS: orchestration, instrumentation, scoring, Schenker, Schenkerian analysis, tonal analysis, Beethoven, Haydn, Schubert, Mendelssohn
I. Why does Music Theory Ignore Orchestration?
II. Historical Considerations
III. Heinrich Schenker's Analytical Conception of Orchestration
IV. Introductory Theoretical Topics
V. Orchestration and Foreground Relationships
VI. Orchestration and the Background
Dr. Tim Cutler
900 N. Grand
Sherman, TX 75090
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Synofzik, Thomas. "Heinrich Grimm (1592/93-1637): 'Cantilena est loquela canens'. Studien zu �berlieferung und Kompositionstechnik." University of Cologne, 2000.
AUTHOR: Synofzik, Thomas
TITLE: Heinrich Grimm (1592/93-1637): 'Cantilena est loquela canens'. Studien zu �berlieferung und Kompositionstechnik.
INSTITUTION: University of Cologne (Germany)
COMPLETED: May 1998/published May 2000
ABSTRACT: Heinrich Grimm was famous among his contemporaries both as composer and as music theorist. Averse conditions of transmission have affected his posthumous reception. Many original sources were probably burnt when Magdeburg, where Grimm was active as cantor from 1617, was destroyed in 1631 during the 30 Years' War. Printed transmission is sparse, but investigation led to the rediscovery of six Grimm prints not yet listed in RISM A/I. The main sources are manuscript motet collections from middle German church archives in single partbooks. More than 50 such collections, many of them hitherto neglected by musicology, contain Grimm concordances. The thematic catalogue lists 320 works attributed in contemporary sources to Grimm. About half of these is lost or incomplete; many eight-voice-motets could only be reconstructed by combining single parts preserved in different places. The manuscript transmission implies problems of authenticity. Many works are transmitted anonymously or show conflicting attributions to different composers. A partly computer based stylistic analysis of the different forms cultivated by Grimm (4-voice homorhythmic chorale settings, parody compositions, small-scale vocal concertos, concertato chorale settings, double choir motets, canons/fugues) is able to describe specific features of voice leading, cadence formation, ambitus and modal treatment in which Grimm can be recognized from his contemporaries. Grimm's theoretical writings, among them a Musica poetica known only from fragments quoted by J. G. Ahle, offer the background for the analytical studies and show Grimm as a leading German exponent of the Monteverdian seconda prattica. Parallel analyses of compositions based on common texts or chorale melodies by Praetorius, Schein, Sch�tz, Scheidt, Selle, Franck, Viadana, and Fattorini are able to show a manifold musical imagery in Grimm's works manifesting itself not only in outward features as dynamic markings and tremulo-effects (apparently introduced in Germany by Grimm), but also in much more subtle exceptions from otherwise strictly followed principles of composition.
KEYWORDS: Musica poetica, double choir technique, leading note, basso continuo
II.1 'ohn allen zweiffel j�mmerlich mit verbrannt' (�berlieferung)
II.2 'Mit Trommeten und Posaunen' (Instrumentalbesetzungen)
III. 'Musica poetica' (Musiktheoretische Schriften)
IV.1 'Ad simplicis Contrapuncti formam Quatuor vocibus' (Kantionalsatz)
IV.1.1 "Es wollt uns Gott" (Grimm, Praetorius, Sch�tz, Schein)
IV.2 'Angst der Hellen und Friede der Seelen' "Das ist mir lieb" (Grimm, Praetorius)
IV.3 'Parodia veteris cantiunculae' (Parodiekompositionen)
IV.3.1 Missa super Hosianna HGWV I/190 (Piscator/Grimm)
IV.3.2 "Hosianna, dem Sohne David" (Grimm HGWV I/155, Scheidt SSWV 278)
IV.4 'theils concerts, theils contrapunctweise gesetzt' (Concerto-Stil)
IV.4.1 "Si bona suscepimus" (Grimm, Viadana, Fattorini)
IV.4.2 "Unum petii" (Grimm HGWV I/275), "Eins bitte ich" (Sch�tz SWV 294)
IV.4.3 "Machet die Tore weit" (Grimm, Scheidt, Selle)
IV.5 'der Choral in zween Discanten diminuiret' (Choralbearbeitungen)
IV.5.1 "Also heilig ist der Tag" (Grimm HGWV I/28, Scheidt SSWV 304)
IV.5.2 "O Jesu Christ" (Grimm), "Nun freut euch" (Schein)
IV.5.3 "Christ lag in Todesbanden" (Grimm, Selle)
IV.6 'Mit IIX. Stimmen zu 2. Choren Ubersetzet' (Doppelch�rigkeit)
IV.6.1 "Herr, unser Herrscher" (Grimm HGWV I/148, Sch�tz SWV 27)
IV.6.2 "Wohl dem, der den Herren f�rchtet" (Grimm, Schein)
IV.6.3 "Ach mein herzliebes Jesulein" (Grimm, Selle)
IV.7 'ad Fugae formam' (Kanonkompositionen/Imitationstechniken)
IV.7.1 "Ach Herr, straf mich nicht" (Grimm, Franck)
IV.7.2 "Unser Leben w�hret 70 Jahr" HGWV *I/273 (6)/ HGWV I/274 (8)
V. 'HG Incertus' (Authentizit�tsfragen)
V.1 "Ach, da� ich h�ren sollte" HGWV ?I/1 (3,Bc)/ HGWV I/2 (8)
V.2 "Ach Herr, straf mich nicht" HGWV ?I/5 (8)/ HGWV I/4 (6)
V.3 "Cor mundum" HGWV ?I/54 (8)/ HGWV I/53 (3)
VI.1 "Herr, unser Herrscher" HGWV *I/148 (8)
VI.2 "Das ist mir lieb" HGWV *I/68 (5)
VI.3 "Unser Leben w�hret 70 Jahr" HGWV *I/273 (6)
VII. Rekapitulation und Ausblick
Thematisches Verzeichnis der Werke von Heinrich Grimm (HGWV)
Dr. Thomas Synofzik
Riehler Str. 29
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