Volume 8, Number 1, February 2002
Copyright © 2002 Society for Music Theory
Kuusi, Tuire. "Set-Class and Chord: Examining Connection between Theoretical Resemblance and Perceived Closeness." Sibelius Academy, 2001.
AUTHOR: Kuusi, Tuire
TITLE: Set-Class and Chord: Examining Connection between Theoretical Resemblance and Perceived Closeness
INSTITUTION: Sibelius Academy
COMPLETED: November 2001
ABSTRACT: The study examined connections between set-classes and perceptual estimations of chords derived from them. The study had two aims, the first of which was to compare theoretical resemblance with perceived closeness. Another aim was to analyze both factors relevant for perceptual estimations of chords and factors relevant for theoretical resemblance.
The study analyzed nine similarity measures. Statistical analyses of shares of values produced by these measures were made. Additionally, the datasets produced by the measures were analyzed using multidimensional scaling. The three factors that emerged were interpreted by (near)chromatic property, pentatonic property, and whole-tone property. An additional factor relevant for set-class similarity was the cardinality of the largest mutually embeddable subset-class of the two set-classes of a pair.
In the empirical part of the study closeness between pentachords was rated by subjects. Additionally, pentachords were rated one at a time on nine semantic scales. When the closeness ratings were compared with measured similarities, a rather high connection was found.
The underlying factors guiding perceptual estimations of chords were analyzed. The most important factor was the degree of consonance of the chords, which could also be explained by theoretical consonance models. The other factors were the chords' association with some traditional tonal chord, the chords' associations with the whole-tone collection, and the width and register of the chords. An additional factor guiding closeness ratings was the number of common pitches between two chords. Most of these qualitative chordal characteristics could be explained by quantitative properties of the set-classes. Only the width and register of chords seemed to operate independently from set-classes.
In this study a connection was found between theoretical resemblance and perceived closeness as well as between set-class properties and perception of chords. The results of the study can be interpreted to indicate that the quantitative properties of set-classes had an effect on the qualitative characteristics of chords derived from them, and these qualitative chordal characteristics had effects on the subjects' estimations.
KEYWORDS: similarity measures, closeness estimations, aural perception, multidimensional scaling, factor analysis, hierarchical clustering, semantic differential, statistical analysis, pitch-class set-theory, pentad class, pentachord
Varney, John Charles. "Colombian Bambuco: The Evolution of a National Music Style." Griffith University, 1999.
AUTHOR: John Charles Varney
TITLE: Colombian Bambuco: The Evolution of a National Music Style
INSTITUTION: Griffith University
BEGUN: January, 1995
COMPLETED: June, 1999
ABSTRACT: This thesis is a description and analysis of the Colombian bambuco as a tricultural musical form. Identifying the bambuco as a distinctive genre firstly within Colombian national music and the Andean region, a primary analysis studies its various ensemble contexts and identifies an archetypal rhythmic structure for the bambuco's melody and accompaniment. The analysis proceeds seeking to identify relationships which may exist between the bambuco and Amerindian, Spanish and Black African sources. The principal tools for the traditionally problematic identification of the bambuco's Black African roots are:
1.the original hypothesis that African rhythmic bell patterns in the form of 'clave patterns' can occur in the melodic rhythm of Afro-American genres when they do not necessarily occur in the rhythmic accompaniment, and
2.Afro-American clave patterns can all be traced to the same African principle of 'rhythmic oddity' as described by Arom (1991, 248).
The thesis opens with a general introduction and literature review. The introduction discusses the overall approach to the topic.. A background to Colombia's history and geography is developed in the second chapter. Chapter Three details the history of the bambuco. Its demise as an expression of the people is documented and the possible reasons for this are considered.
An analysis of a number of bambucos is carried out to identify it within Colombian Andean music. Through this analysis an archetypal rhythmic structure is identified within the melody and its accompaniment to rhythmically identify certain basic phrases.
The thesis then begins an investigation of the polycultural elements of the bambuco, examining. These examinations are carried out taking into consideration social, musical and technical aspects of the artistic tendencies of these cultures. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of the findings of this cultural comparison and this is applied to such considerations as the cultural classification of the bambuco and practical aspects such as its notation.
KEYWORDS: bambuco, Varney, Colombian music, Andean, Afro-Hispanic, mestizo, música criolla, clave
Chapter One: INTRODUCTION 1
Chapter Two: CONTEXTS AND BACKGROUND 27
Chapter Three: HISTORY OF THE BAMBUCO 52
Chapter Four: BAMBUCO - ENSEMBLE COMPOSITION AND MUSICAL ANALYSIS 97
Chapter Five: RELATIONSHIP WITH AMERINDIAN INFLUENCE 204
Chapter Six: RELATIONSHIP WITH SPANISH AND EUROPEAN INFLUENCES 227
Chapter Seven: RELATIONSHIP WITH AFRICAN INFLUENCE 264
Chapter Eight: CONCLUSION 322
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