1.  For a characteristically close definition of figured bass see: Walter Kolneder, Schule des Generalba�spiels (Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen, 1983), vol. 1, Die Instrumentalmusik, 9; and Carl Dahlhaus, Studies on the Origin of Harmonic Tonality, trans. by Robert O. Gjerdigen (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 135. See as well the more expansive definition in Joel Lester, Compositional Theory in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 87-89. The fine distinction I am drawing between Generalba�lehre and Harmonielehre has, of course, not always been so clear cut. See Ulf Thomson, Voraussetzungen und Artungen der �sterreichischen Generalba�lehre Zwischen Albrechtsberger und Sechter, Band 8 of Wiener Ver�ffentlichungen zur Musikwi�enschaft (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1978), 9, and especially 68-71. See also Manfred Wagner, Die Harmonielehren der ersten H�lfte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Band 38 of Studien zur Musikgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg: Gustave Bosse, 1974), 27, item 1.

2.  Joseph Preindl, Wiener-Tonschule; oder Anweisung zum Generalba�e, zur Harmonie, zum Contrapuncte und der Fugen-lehre..., comp. and ed. by Ignaz Ritter von Seyfried, (Vienna: Tobias Haslinger, [1827]).

3.  Robert. W. Wason, Viennese Harmonic Theory from Albrechstberger to Schenker and Schoenberg (Ann Arbor: U.M.I. Research Press, 1985), 5-9. So, for example, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger's Gr�ndliche Anweisung zur Composition (Leipzig: Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, 1790) can be said to be almost devoid of Harmonielehre, concerned as it is primarily with species counterpoint. Much the same can be said of Albrechtsberger's Kurzgefa�te Methode den Generalba� zu erlernen (Vienna: Artaria, [ca. 1792]) and the similar Generalba�-Schule (Leipzig: Hoffmeister and K�hnel, [ca. 1804]. (The treatise, J. G. Albrechtsbergers s�mmtliche Schriften �ber Generalba�, Harmonie-Lehre, und Tonsetzkunst; zum Selbstunterrichte [Vienna: Anton Strau�, (ca. 1825)] was edited by Seyfried, and the extensive influence of Harmonielehre in the work may be attributable to its editor.) On the other end of the time period, Simon Sechter's Die Grunds�tze der musikalischen Komposition (Leipzig: Breitkopf und H�rtel, 1853-54), especially volume 1, Die richtige Folge der Grundharmonien, oder vom Fundamentalba� und dessen Umkehrungen und Stellvertretern, is a full-blown Viennese Harmonielehre. In between lie treatises such as the Anleitung zum General-Ba� of Emmanuel Aloys F�rster (1748-1823) (Vienna: Artaria, 1823), in which the influence of Harmonielehre can be detected, but not in a significant manner.

4.  We must note as a caveat Seyfried's role as compiler and editor. A manuscript source of the Wiener Tonschule (Vienna, National Library, Preindl Sm. 5072, 78 p., 3 parts) consists primarily of contrapuntal exercises. The final revised manuscript sent for publication (Preindl Sm. 5119) is in a very different hand. Seyfried's influence upon the treatise may have been significant (as it was presumably on Albrechtsberger's s�mmtliche Schriften [see above]), but, lacking further documentary evidence to the contrary, we shall assume that the bulk of the treatise as published is Preindl's conception.

5.  Gottfried Weber, Versuch einer geordneten Theorie der Tonsezkunst zum Selbstunterriche mit Anmerkungen f�r Gelehrtere (Mainz: B. Schott, 1817-21); Georg Joseph Vogler, Tonwi�enschaft und Tonsezkunst (Mannheim: Kurf�rstliche Hofbuchdruckerei, 1776 [facsimile edition, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1970]), and Vogler, Betrachtungen der Mannheimer Tonschule (Mannheim: 1778-81 [facsimile edition, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1974]).

6.  Weber, Versuch, vol. 1, Grammatik der Tonsezkunst, 271.

7. Hereafter, citations from Preindl, Wiener Tonschule, will be made directly in the text with the page number enclosed in braces.

8. By my usage of function, I follow Preindl's definition of Ton (see above): my function is the fixed relation that would presumably distinguish a Ton from a mere Klang. In terms of Preindl's treatise, this concept of function entails relation to a tonal center or key, something like Daniel Harrison's succinctly defined "harmonic attitude": see Daniel Harrison, Harmonic Function in Chromatic Music: A Renewed Dualist Theory and an Account of Its Precedents (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 37.

9.  See Ulf Thomson, Voraussetzungen und Artungen, 22-27. See as well, John Rothgeb, "Schenkerian Theory: Its Implications for the Undergraduate Curriculum," Music Theory Spectrum 3 (1981): 145-46, and in particular what Rothgeb calls an "'internal system' of organization . . . that would take harmonic theory into account," a system internal to figured bass. He illustrates this idea by citing Schenker's Generalba�lehre: ". . . both the assignment and the interpretation of the figures depend upon the [totality of the] composition, and thus upon scale degrees, modulation, form, and so forth, to such an extent that even the theory of scale degrees becomes a latent, supplementary component of figured-bass theory."(146)

10.  I am much indebted to Phil Stoker for discussions about Preindl and modulation undertaken during a directed readings course at the University of Ottawa and to research grants from the University of Ottawa and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for a study of figured-bass treatises from Vienna circa 1800.