1. See, for example, Kofi Agawu, "Theory and Practice in the Analysis of Nineteenth-Century Lied," Music Analysis 11/1 (1992): 3-36; Lawrence Zbikowski, Conceptualizing Music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
2. Most scholarship that focuses specifically on music in film considers music in this way. See for example, Kathryn Kalinak, Settling the Score: Music and the Classical Hollywood Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992). At the same time, it is not unusual to find references to music as "additive" rather than integral to a film's meaning, especially in research that focuses on visual images in film. See Jeff Smith, "Unheard Melodies? A Critique of Psychoanalytic Theories of Film Music," in Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies, eds. David Bordwell and No�l Carroll, 230-247 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996).
3. Mark David (lyrics), Jerry Livingston (music), performed by Marty Robbins, film score by Max Steiner. Nominated for an Oscar for best song in 1959.
4. As Rick Altman has pointed out, most film music scholarship, especially within music theory, has focused on "classical" music. Though less well studied, he writes "nondiegetic popular song lyrics"--and music, I would add--"provide a unique opportunity to editorialize and to focus audience attention. Theme songs used over initial credits constitute a particularly common example of this strategy." Rick Altman, "Cinema and Popular Song: The Lost Tradition," in Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, eds. Pamela Robertson Wojcik and Arthur Knight, 19-30 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001), 26.
5. For more extensive discussions of cognitive linguistics and music, see, for example, Zbikowski, Conceptualizing Music; "The Blossoms of 'Trockne Blumen': Music and Text in the Early Nineteenth Century," Music Analysis 18/3 (October 1999): 307-345; "Metaphor and Music Theory: Reflections from Cognitive Science," Music Theory Online 4/1 (January 1998); and "Theories of Categorization and Theories of Music," Music Theory Online 1/4 (July 1995); Nicholas Cook, "Theorizing Musical Meaning," Music Theory Spectrum 23 (2001): 170-95; Candace Brower, "A Cognitive Theory of Musical Meaning," Journal of Music Theory 44/2 (2000): 323-372; and Janna K. Saslaw, "Forces, Containers, and Paths: The Role of Body-Derived Image Schemas in the Conceptualization of Music," Journal of Music Theory 40/ 2 (1996): 217-243. In addition, Volumes 22-23 (1997-98) of Theory and Practice are dedicated primarily to cognitive linguistics and music.
6. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 20.
7. Although at this very basic level, cross-domain mapping often is metaphoric, at more-removed levels, such as in conceptual blending, cross-domain relationships such as analogy, correspondence, and so on, may obtain as well as metaphor. Although metaphor theory and conceptual blending originated as two different (and sometimes competing) streams in cognitive linguistics research, they are not fundamentally incompatible. See also Joseph Grady, Seana Coulson, and Todd Oakley. "Blending and Metaphor," in Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics, eds. Gerard Steen and Raymond Gibbs, 100-124 (Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1999); also availableon line. Although Lakoff and Johnson do not make much use of conceptual blending, they include it as the last part of their four-part "Integrated Theory of Primary Metaphor." (Philosophy in the Flesh, 46-47.)
8. Frames organize knowledge with respect to their motivating context. Frames are a broad category and encompass concepts such as scripts and schema. For a discussion of the history of frames in semantics see Coulson, Semantic Leaps: Frame-Shifting and Conceptual Blending in Meaning Construction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 17-20.
9. Volume 11, Issue 3/4 (2000) of Cognitive Linguistics is a special issue devoted to conceptual blending (eds. Coulson and Oakley). In addition, much information can be found at theconceptual blending web page, which includes complete copies or excerpts from several important articles. See also Gilles Fauconnier, "Mental Spaces, Language M odalities, and Conceptual Integration, " in The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure, ed. Michael Tomasello, 251-279 (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1998); Fauconnier and Mark Turner, "Conceptual Integration Networks," Cognitive Science 22/2 (April-June 1998): 133-187; Seana Coulson, Semantic Leaps; Fauconnier and Turner, "Blending as a Central Process of Grammar," in Conceptual Structure, Discourse and Language, ed. Adele E. Goldberg, 113-130 (Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1996); Fauconnier and Turner, "Principles of Conceptual Integration," in Discourse and Cognition: Bridging the Gap, ed. Jean-Pierre Koenig, 269-284 (Stanford, Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1998). Blending is in many respects similar to Piercean semiotics, and is more compatible with Robert Hatten's definition of "troping" in music than simple cross-domain mapping. (See, for example, Robert S. Hatten, "Gestural Troping in Music and Its Consequences for Semiotic Theory," in Musical Signification, Between Rhetoric and Pragmatics , ed. Gino Stefani, Eero Tarasti, and Luca Marconi, 193-199 (Bologna: Cooperativa Libraria Universitaria Editrice Bologna, 1998). Marianne Kielian-Gilbert addressed many of these issues in "Interpreting Musical Analogy: From Rhetorical Device to Perceptual Process," Music Perception 8.1 (Fall 1990), 63-94.
10. This occurs through the composition of elements from both inputs, which creates new relationships between elements selected for the blend. The blended space is further "rounded out" through completion, in which background knowledge is brought forth from frames that relate to the blended space without our conscious recognition. Finally, elaboration develops the blend by allowing the creation of novel information according to principles and logic in the blend (also known as "running the blend"). Blends can also be one-sided or two-sided, dependent on whether the frame structure from one or both (or more) input spaces in carried into the blended space. See Coulson, Semantic Leaps, 117-123.
11. In addition to the term "shotgun modulation" (unknown origin), discussion on the smt-pop list (August 2001) has identified various other terms for this type of transposition operation, including the "pump-up" (identified by Adam Ricci, origin unknown); "crowbar modulation" (Peter Kaminsky, "The Popular Album as Song Cycle: Paul Simon's Still Crazy After All These Years," College Music Symposium 32 (1992): 38-54; "arranger's modulation" (origin unknown); and "Truck driver's modulation" (Walter Everett, The Beatles as Musicians, Vol. I: The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)). Patrick McCreless ("An Evolutionary Perspective on Nineteenth-Century Semitonal Relations," in The Second Practice of Nineteenth-Century Tonality, eds. William Kinderman and Harald Krebs, 87-113 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996)) also uses the term "Barry Manilow tonality" for some types of this transposition. Because of conceptual blending, the meaning (or lack of meaning) of such transpositions will vary. Often overlooked is the function of modulation in live performance to show off a singer's or singing group's skill. For a description of one of the potential effects of such a transposition, see Garrison Keillor, Lake Wobegon: Summer 1956 (New York: Viking, 2001), 207-208.
12. Zbikowski, "Metaphor and Music Theory," paragraph 3.4.
13. Saslaw examines how different theorists have constructed different container metaphors for keys in "Forces, Containers, and Paths: The Role of Body-Derived Image Schemas in the Conceptualization of Music."
14. For a discussion of a possible neural model for the perception of motion in music, see Robert O. Gjerdingen, "Apparent Motion in Music?" in Musical Networks: Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance, eds. Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, 141-174 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999); revised fromMusic Perception, 11 (1994): 335-370. See also the discussion of motion and forces in Steve Larson, "Musical forces and melodic patterns (musical forces as embodied metaphor privileged in tonal music)," Theory and Practice, 22-23 (1997-98): 55-71.
15. The ability of the chorus of male singers to transpose themselves up by semitone establishes the male chorus as agents which potentially have influence in the course of the narrative.
16. See the discussion of semitone transposition in 19th-century music in McCreless, "An Evolutionary Perspective on Nineteenth-Century Semitonal Relations."
17. Because conceptual blending relies on frames which are in part formed by individual experiences, conceptual blending provides an additional mechanism for theorizing the spectator in both film theory and music theory.
18. This also activates the frame for hanging in general, which, depending on the individual's knowledge, could include prominent hanging locations on hills such as Tower Hill in England, Gallows Hill in Salem, Golgotha/Calvary, as well as frames for lynching in the United States (during the Westward expansion as well as in the South--typically not involving hills).
19. This is the same ridge on which Doc Frail lives a little further down, and where, as Michael Walker observes, Frail physically acts as mediator between the "mob justice" of the mining town below and the hanging tree itself. Michael Walker, "The Westerns of Delmer Daves," in The Book of Westerns, eds. Ian Cameron and Douglas Pye, 123-160 (New York: Continuum, 1996), 154.
20. Steiner's score contributes throughout the film to maintaining the presence of the hanging tree through the use of a "hanging tree motive" (drawn from the first two bars of the song's melody, and often employing mode mixture) as a major element in the scoring of the film. This is first heard in the opening scenes when Doc Frail (Cooper) first is shown by the hanging tree (see example 8). It is interesting to note that in Bosley Crowther's review of the film, (The New York Times, February 13, 1959), he complains that "The haunting symbol of that tree, which is presented at the outset, is even neglected, until the very end." While it is true that visually the hanging tree does not reappear frequently, "hanging tree themes" musically saturate the film.
21. Jerrold Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," in Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies, eds. David Bordwell and No�l Carroll, 248-282 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 259.
22. Though based on Schenkerian principles, this sketch is not meant to show Schenkerian structure, but simply to show the basic voice leading of the verse.
23. Treating the seventh scale degree as a neighbor of a neighbor is quite common in minor; see, for example, Hugo Wolf, "Nun wandre, Maria." There are plenty of examples in major where the seventh scale degree originates in scale degree 8 and is supported by iii. Examples in major in which the seventh scale degree is treated as a neighbor of a neighbor, originating in and returning to the fifth scale degree, are rare. Consider the well-known example "People Will Think We're In Love." In the refrain, the seventh scale degree (as the seventh of tonic harmony) is approached from the fifth scale degree; the seventh scale degree then moves to the sixth, locally appearing as if it will act a neighbor of a neighbor. But the seventh scale degree then moves to tonic both immediately and a bit later as a long-term goal. There are also genre expectations at play. Several of Marty Robbins Western ballads from the same period as "The Hanging Tree," including "Big Iron" and "Cool Water," establish trajectories to the upper tonic that are realized within the body of the piece.
24. Lawrence Barsalou, "Perceptual symbol systems," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1999): 577-609. As Coulson describes, perceptual symbols are mental representations which are neither perceptual (strictly dependent on sensory input systems) nor symbolic (completely amodal). Rather, they are "schematic representations of perceptual experience...stored around a common frame that promotes schematized simulations.....Perceptual symbols recruit neural machinery activated in perceptual experience from all modalities-auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, and kinesthetic, as well as visual. As abstracted perceptual experience, perceptual symbols develop in order to support categorization [and] inference." (Coulson, Semantic Leaps, 281.) Frames built from perceptual symbols support conceptual blending processes while maintaining the hierarchic organization of frames.
25. This can be illustrated by comparing the song as written with a recomposition in which the pattern of parallel fifths is continued in the upper voices so that the seventh scale degree continues up to tonic when iii moves to IV. In the recomposition, the effect of the second half of each verse is "backing up" rather than temporarily suspending forward motion.
26. This is similar to the opposition between what Marianne Kielian-Gilbert calls the "transpositional" and "harmonic" in "The Functional Differentiation of Harmonic and Transpositional Patterns in Liszt's Consolation No. 4," Nineteenth-Century Music 14 (1990): 48-59.
27. I thank Bill Wrobel for sharing his research on the score of the film, which is held at the Warner Brothers Archive at USC.
28. This is drawn from Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphor GOING IN THE SAME DIRECTION IS REMAINING IN A STATE; therefore, TURNING IS CHANGING.
29. Unlike almost half of the songs from Marty Robbins' Gunfighter Ballads, in "The Hanging Tree" the protagonist/singer does not die at the end.
30. Although this may seem counter-intuitive, perhaps an analogous situation will clarify how there can be no connection between the two metaphors despite the inclusion of the same element (access principle) in both areas. Imagine the ending of a film in which the hero or heroine, after an appropriate catastrophe, stands bravely and declares, "This is not the end. It's only the beginning!" Cue music, fade, and seconds later, a script "The End" appears on the screen. There is no inherent connection between the two "ends," and therefore no contradiction between the assertion "This isn't the end" and "The end." (Of course, because the same element exists in both areas, the access principle provides the potential for a spoof in such a situation.)
31. I speculate that this can also be seen in the parallel motion in the first half of each verse, where the "path" Doc Frail is on (the life he leads) will lead to the hanging tree (accompanied by "masculine"-coded conventions of guitar barred chords, the rhythm in the bass); but the turn to classical "civilized" voice leading, to conventional harmony (embodied by Elizabeth) has the power to temporarily halt this progress. Tapping into the convention of male and female as complementary, progress is permanently reversed when the downward potential of the conventional voice leading is coupled with the reverse of the harmonic support, and the fifths are collapsed into thirds. In addition, these two strands are registrally distinct: Frail's journey occurs primarily in the upper tetrachord, while conventional voice-leading occurs in the "grounding" obligatory register.
32. Claudia Gorbman, Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 19.
33. I am using the terms "theme" and "motive" rather than "leitmotiv." For a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered when importing the "leitmotiv" into film studies, see Justin London, "Musical Leitmotivs in Cinema and Proper Names in Language: Structural and Functional Parallels," in Music and Cinema, eds. James Buhler, Caryl Flinn, and David Neumeyer, 85-96 (Weslyan University Press, 2000).
34. Coulson, Semantic Leaps, especially chapters 2 and 3. Frame-shifting is especially apparent in jokes. The one-liner, "By the time Mary had her fourteenth child, she'd finally run out of names to call her husband" relies on the shift in interpretation of "names" as "baby names" to "names" as "epithets" along with the shift in frames that allows such interpretations (Coulson, 49-50).
35. From a Schenkerian perspective, closure in the obligatory register occurs at the end of verse 4, with the text "And my own true love, she walked with me," again emphasizing that closure requires the resolution of both journey metaphors.
36. Coulson, Semantic Leaps, 88-91. Coulson reviews the experimental research that has shown that accessibility to information can depend on the location of a fictional character. For example, "participants took longer to verify whether or not various objects were 'in the ballroom' after they read, 'The king left the ballroom,' than when they read, 'The king was in the ballroom.'"
37. While frame-shifting in jokes is quite clear, frame-shifting in music raises many questions. One critical question seems to be how much structure needs to be retained for shifting to occur.
38. This is also a good example of how blending can change the meaning of the "same" event. In the song apart from the film, the "what-do-wah's" are images of the threatening half step. In the song at the end of the film, because the frame-shifting to the love-journey space has already occurred, the "what-do-wah's" over the closing scene act as flourishes for a story whose ending we now know.
39. Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner discuss the higher order blending processes that result from the use of the shot/reverse shot editing techniques in film and television. Fauconnier and Turner, The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities (New York: Basic Books, 2002); qtd. in Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley, "Blending Basics," Cognitive Linguistics 11-3/4 (2000): 183.
40. Walker, "The Westerns of Delmer Daves," 159.
41. The ultimate source of the gold which purchases Doc Frail's freedom changes from the novel to the film. In the film, the Doc stakes Elizabeth, Rune, and Frenchy's claim without their knowledge, but Elizabeth joins Rune and Frenchy to work physically at their stake (another way in which Elizabeth is marked alternately as an "honorary male" and as a non-respectable woman). In the novel, Doc also stakes their claim without their knowledge, but it is less clear that Elizabeth needs his money. Doc is reluctant to ask her how much money she has, because a "lady" would not discuss such matters. In addition, Elizabeth stays in her cabin in town and contributes only money to the gold claim--she does not contribute her labor.
42. In his Rolling Stone review of the re-release of Marty Robbins' "Gunfighter Ballads & Trail Songs" album (which includes "The Hanging Tree"), Alec Dubro writes that "Robbins has a beautiful voice and these are great songs," noting that "They are like the songs from some of the Hoot Gibson, Ken Maynard and Gene Autry-type of movies. Except that the quality of music is much higher." He especially valued the album for its ability to, "with reasonable consistency, clear [his] place of unwanted guests...especially people concerned with being hip." Since "recent trends in rock make it much more relevant than it formerly was," it no longer serves this purpose as consistently. The review is availableonline.
43. Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," 248.
44. Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," 250-257. While the same film music may serve both narrative and non-narrative purposes in a given scene, Levinson argues that most music can be considered primarily either narrative or non-narrative.
45. Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," 257. This is also characteristic of Dorothy Johnson's narrative style. Judy Alter writes: "Johnson has an incisive way of giving the whole idea of the story in the first paragraph, then spinning it out....Johnson effectively uses foreshadowing to heighten rather than diminish the impact of her stories." Judy Alter, Dorothy Johnson (Boise, Idaho: Boise State University, 1980), 26.
46. Literary theorists also classify a narrator as "autodiegetic" if the narrator is the is not only inside the narrative but functions as its principal character. I am retaining the Levinson's use of only homodiegetic and heterodiegetic. See Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), 106.
47. As a male voice that exists without showing its accompanying body at the beginning of the film, this voice gains authority. Tania Modleski has argued that in film, as the male body disappears, its voice gains authority; but for a female, there is a loss of power through being reduced to only the body. (Tania Modleski, Feminism Without Women: Culture and Criticism in a Postfeminist Age (New York: Routledge, 1991)). These diametrically opposed meanings for the "same" filmic device point to a largely unexplored area in cognitive linguistics--namely, how the materiality of the body affects metaphor and blending (notable exceptions include some of Lakoff's work, e.g. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things, and Moral Politics). Despite its emphasis on "embodied" thought, much of the work on embodied metaphor seems to rely on an abstract idea of "body"--literally the body in the mind--that is almost as transcendent of the material body as the mind is transcendent of the body in the stream of Western philosophy criticized by Lakoff and Johnson. This abstract idea of the body seems at most androgynous, in which the default interpretation of androgyny is male (rather than female or "neutral"). As Judith Butler writes (and Lakoff and Johnson agree), "those trained in philosophy...invariably miss the body or worse, write against it." But Butler continues, "Sometimes they forget that "the" body comes in genders." (Judith Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex (New York: Routledge, 1993), ix.) Somewhere between the basic understanding of orientation in vertical space and the creation of complex metaphors (such as "love is a journey") and conceptual blending, surely the experience of the materiality of the body in a given culture makes a difference in meaning construction. While there are examples of analyses in other fields which take gender into consideration (such as Jean Umiker-Sebeok's study of advertising in "Power and the Construction of Gendered Spaces," International Review of Sociology/ Revue Internationale de Sociologie 6/3 (1996): 389-403), the material body does not seem to figure much in the theories themselves.
48. The term "gaze" is used in film theory to describe, broadly defined, who is doing the looking. This may include the framing of a shot (the "looking" of the camera/filmmaker/narrator), the looking of characters within the film, and the looking of the spectator as situated by the first two gazes. Some earlier feminist theory (e.g. Laura Mulvey) posited the gaze as exclusively male; more recent work has explored the relationship between a theoretical gaze and the role of spectators other than (middle-class, white, heterosexual) male (e.g. Jackie Stacey).
49. This is discussed more extensively in my "Singing Cowboys, Cinematic Narrators, and Gender in the Western," in progress.
50. Mr. and Mrs. Flounce, the storekeepers in town, give Elizabeth the benefit of the doubt, continuing to address her in her identity as daughter (even though her father has been killed). Mr. Flounce refers to her once as "Miss Mahler." Mrs. Flounce also refers to her once as Miss Mahler early in the film, but when Mrs. Flounce learns that Frail is supporting Elizabeth, she calls Elizabeth a harlot and refers to her "innocent lady" act.
51. Lacan, Seminar II: The ego in Freud's theory and in the technique of psychoanalysis, 1954-1955, 169 . Qtd. In Butler, Bodies that Matter, 152-153.
52. Butler, Bodies that Matter, 152-153.
53. The "Law of the Father" is a term that comes from Freud via Lacan. Expanding the Oedipal fear of castration by the father to include any "lack", Lacan posits submission to the "Law of the Father" as necessary for entrance into the symbolic order; this includes submitting to the rules of language and the recognition of sexual difference. This term is often used by feminist film theorists (sometimes interchangeably with "symbolic order"), to describe patriarchal society.
54. Butler, Bodies that Matter, 153.
55. On one level, Frail's consistent use of the name "Elizabeth" indicates a recognition on his part of a single, stable "Elizabeth identity" that simply needs to be recovered, and thus a single (rather than changeable) name seems to be indicative of Elizabeth's subjectivity (at least in Frail's view). But on closer examination, this stable "Elizabeth identity" exists only within the confines of the daughter relationship (before her father is killed) or wife relationship (after Frail calls her at the end). The fact that her identity needs to be reconstituted when she is between these two relationships reveals an underlying "changeable name" framework in which her identity is secured through the transfer of name (from her father's presumably to Frail's).
56. Martin Pumphrey, "Why do Cowboys Wear Hats in the Bath?," 30.
57. David Lusted, "Social Class and the Western as Male Melodrama," in The Book of Westerns, eds. Ian Cameron and Douglas Pye, 63-74 (New York: Continuum, 1996), 64. The nature of this display changed over time; for example, Lusted points out the "feminization" of Western heroes such as Marlon Brando and James Dean. This is a broad topic that covers everything from white hats to facial hair, to the convention of only villains dropping their pants (as Frenchy does) and "dandyism" representing male weakness. As a Western of the late 1950s,The Hanging Tree is in a time of changing convention; thus Frenchy has facial hair and drops his pants, while Doc is clean-shaven but wears black (as does Elizabeth at the end) to indicate his "outsider" status. See also Steve Neale, "Masculinity as Spectacle: Reflections on Men and Mainstream Cinema," inFeminism and Film, ed. E. Ann Kaplan, 253-264 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
58. Martin Pumphrey, "Why do Cowboys Wear Hats in the Bath?," 54.
59. Laura Mulvey, "Afterthoughts on 'Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema' inspired by King Vidor's Duel in the Sun (1946)," in Feminist Film Theory: A Reader, ed. Sue Thornham, 122-130 (New York, New York University Press, 1999), 126; reprinted from Framework 15-16-17 (Summer 1981): 12-15. Revealing the constructed nature of "savagery" versus "civilization" that is of ten taken to be the fundamental task of the Western genre (as the reworking of American foundation myths) is a recurring theme throughout Daves's Westerns. See Michael Walker, "The Westerns of Delmer Daves." As such, it is characteristic of a stylistic change in which the hero's victory over the villain does not affirm conventional social structure. (Martin Pumphrey, "Why do Cowboys Wear Hats in the Bath?," 52.)
60. here also seems to be a parallel "scandal" as revealed by similarities between the treatment of the symbolic order in the film and the seventh scale degree in the song. Both are endowed with the assumption of certain "natural" powers (to control social order, to lead to tonic); in both cases this power is nullified, and is further shown to not be "natural" but constructed by their respective contexts.
61. Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," 263.
62. Lee Clark Mitchell, Westerns: Making the Man in Fiction and Film (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 187.
63. Levinson, "Film Music and Narrative Agency," 258.
64. For a history of the many meanings of narrative, narration, narratology, and so on, see Patrick O'Neill, Fictions of Discourse: Reading Narrative Theory (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1994).
65. A portion of the final scene was deleted from the final print. In the deleted scene, Elizabeth pleads with the crowd to spare Frail's life before giving up her gold claim. Not only would this scene disrupt the musical dramatic action by interrupting the "Hanging Tree" theme with the "Elizabeth" theme, but it would further widen the gap between the first and second cinematic narrator. I again thank Bill Wrobel for sharing his sketch studies.
End of footnotes