Volume 9, Number 2, July 2003
Copyright © 2003 Society for Music Theory
Goldenberg, Yosef. "Prolongation of Seventh Chords in Tonal Music." Hebrew University, Jerusalem, September 2001.
AUTHOR: Goldenberg, Yosef
TITLE: Prolongation of Seventh Chords in Tonal Music
INSTITUTION: Hebrew University, Jerusalem
BEGUN: September, 1994
COMPLETED: December, 2001
ABSTRACT: I explore prolongation of seventh chords in Western tonal music using Schenkerian methodology, although I refute the central Schenkerian idea that dissonances cannot be prolonged.
Prolongation of seventh chords is problematic in two respects:1. It violates the control of strict counterpoint over free composition ; 2.The seventh and the octave are two adjacent tones within the same harmony.
Schenker’s resistance to accepting seventh chords as true harmonies intensified over time. In HARMONY, he regards dissonances in strict counterpoint as merely analogous to passing events in free composition; beginning in COUNTERPOINT I, he identifies the procedures of strict counterpoint themselves as the basis of free composition, but until DER TONWILLE 2, he thinks of scale degrees as an independent force.
The seventh of V7 may participate in background and deep middleground configurations in several ways: 1. An inner-voice seventh accompanyingV2^; 2. Harmonization of the 4^, either an Urlinie member, an upper neighbor to the structural 3^, or an incomplete neighbor between 3^ and2^. Sevenths of secondary V7s often participate in middleground levels.
I discuss prolongations of V7, diminished seventh chords, other diatonic seventh chords (almost always with a minor seventh] and augmented-sixth seventh chords. The categorization is based on combination of chord type and voice leading procedures. Prolongations of seventh chords may involve the tone of the seventh actively, or occur under a stationary seventh.
Prolongations of seventh chords are in fact common, especially in unstable sections. They are possible via all voice leading techniques. One special technique is enharmonic parentheses, where the prolonged chord has one function in relation to its context, and another in relation to its inner content. Contrary to expectations, full circular prolongation of seventh chords is characteristic of common-practice music, and NOT of the late Romanticism. By the radical Romantics, circular prolongation, of consonance or dissonance, is usually lacking.
KEYWORDS: Schenker, prolongation, seventh chord
1. Basic Concepts and Definitions
2. Problems Concerning Prolongation of Seventh Chords
3. Literature Survey
4. Seventh Chords at the Deepest Structural Levels
5. General Overview of Prolongation of Seventh Chords
6. Procedures for Providing V7 with Structural Meaning without Full Circular Prolongation
7. Full Circular Prolongation of V7
8. Prolongation of Diminished Seventh Chords (VIIº7)
9. Prolongation of the Remaining Seventh Chords
10. Prolongation of Augmented-Sixth Seventh Chords
Dr. Yosef Goldenberg
Acting Head Librarian, Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance
26 Hatqufah Street, IL-92628
Telephone: +972-2-6786725 (Home) +972-2-6759917 (Office)
BaileyShea, Matthew L. "The Wagnerian Satz: The Rhetoric of the Sentence in Wagner'sPost-Lohengrin Operas." Yale University, May 2003.
AUTHOR: BaileyShea, Matthew, L
TITLE: The Wagnerian Satz: The Rhetoric of the Sentence in Wagner's Post-Lohengrin Operas
INSTITUTION: Yale University
BEGUN: September, 1997
COMPLETED: May, 2003
ABSTRACT: In the first volume of Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner, Alfred Lorenz introduces the concept of Barform with the claim that Wagner "especially loves this form since it is better suited for the dramatic momentum than any other." Though Lorenz would have been unaware of the idea at the time, this statement also applies to Schoenberg's concept of the sentence (Satz). Both forms grow out of the same gestural core and both have an extraordinary influence on Wagner's formal rhetoric at the level of the phrase. The concept of the sentence, however, offers a new perspective on our understanding of the developmental foreground of Wagner's music. Thus, this dissertation builds upon the recently revived Formenlehre tradition by identifying the dramatic and rhetorical role of the sentence in Wagner's music.
Among other things this dissertation presents a revised model for the sentence that more accurately recognizes its dramatic and gestural qualities. It also clarifies the relationship between the sentence and other more traditional Wagnerian formal paradigms, including model-sequence technique and Barform. In addition, it illuminates the interaction between sentence and voice--an issue that has been much overlooked in studies of classical phrase structure--and introduces the concept of the Satzkette, or sentence chain: situations in which sentences or sentential fragments are combined to create larger strings of wave-like sentence patterns. Much of Wagner's music is informed by an overriding sentential impulse and by identifying the conventions of the Wagnerian Satz, we reveal crucial dramatic parallels between the gesture of the sentence and the movements, emotions, and text of the characters onstage.
KEYWORDS: Wagner, Sentence, Form, Gesture, Rhetoric, Schoenberg
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