1. Not surprisingly, Britten and Schoenberg receive pride of place in the book (25 and 24 citations, respectively), but Stravinsky (18) and Bart�k (16) follow close behind, with Carter (11), Boulez (9), Tippett (8), Messiaen (8), Debussy (7) and Reich (7) comprising the rest of the "top ten." Two thirds of the pieces cited in the book (166) are by English or American composers.

2. The most recent piece discussed is Stockhausen's "opera-cycle" Licht (2002), while the majority of works cited are drawn from the post-war decades, 1945-1995. For a cautionary note on placing too much stock in the documentary "proof" provided by composers' own accounts of their music, see Edward D. Latham, "Review of Ethan Haimo's 'Atonality, Analysis and the Intentional Fallacy,'" Music Theory Online 3.2 (1997).

3. In a minor editorial oversight, Whittall omits the dates of composition for a handful of works, particularly in Chapter 1 (e.g., pp. 8, 9, 10, 13, and 18).

4. For more examples of "dialogues," see pp. 16, 18, 19, 22, and 38.

5. Whittall borrows the stylistic classification "modern classicism" from the work of James Hepokoski (Whittall, p. 9, n12).

6. Robert S. Hatten, Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).

7. The comprehensiveness embodied in these recommendations recalls the work of Jean-Jacques Nattiez on tripartite semiological analysis. For an analytical example, see "Density 21.5: A Semiological Analysis," Music Analysis 1 (1980).

8. David Lewin used the term "area" to describe a harmonic region, loosely analogous to a modulatory area in tonal music, formed through the pairing of inversionally combinatorial row forms. See David Lewin, "A Study of Hexachord Levels in Schoenberg's Violin Phantasy," Perspectives of New Music 6.1 (Fall-Winter 1967): 1-17.

9. For a detailed discussion of the text and dramatic implications of the scene, see Edward D. Latham, "The Prophet and the Pitchman: Dramatic Structure and its Musical Elucidation in Moses und Aron, Act I, Scene 2," in Political and Religious Ideas in the Works of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Charlotte M. Cross and Russell A. Berman (New York: Garland Publishing, 2000): 131-58.

End of footnotes