1. Simon Denitith, Parody (London and New York: Routledge, 2000), 22-23.
2. Rey M. Longyear, "Beethoven and Romantic Irony," in The Creative World of Beethoven, ed. Paul Henry Lang (New York: W. W. Norton, 1970), 147.
3. Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, trans., Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, ed. Michael Holquist (Austin, TX and London: University of Texas Press, 1981).
4. Linda Hutcheon, Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-century Art Forms (New York and London: Methuen, 1985).
5. Robert S. Hatten, Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994); Esti Sheinberg, Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich: A Theory of Musical Incongruities (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000). I am deeply indebted to both Hatten and Sheinberg for their guidance in conducting this research.
6. Hutcheon, 12. She claims that "the work of Magritte provides a clear example of parodic transgression of many levels of iconic norms that moves beyond quotation."
7. Here, referent is synonymous with the object of a manifested sign (sinsign) or designatum according to Charles Peirce's semiotic theory (Hatten, 258).
8. A more subtle semantic inversion can be noted in the substitution of the flower in the left-hand corner of the painting: in Italy, the white chrysanthemum signifies death.
9. Ibid., 55. Her concept of ethos draws on the work by the Groupe MU in Rhétorique generale (Paris: Larousse, 1970).
10. Ibid., 54.
11. See Edwin L. Battistella, The Logic of Markedness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). For instance, the opposition between man and woman are defined by markedness values since the former includes the latter in creating a categorical asymmetry.
12. Hutcheon, 34. In supporting Kristeva's position, Roland Barthes defines intertexuality as a modality of perception, an act of decoding texts in light of other texts.
13. For a discussion of Corigliano's opera, see Jane Piper Clendinning, "Postmodern Architecture/Postmodern music," in Postmodern Music/Postmodern Thought, eds., Judith Lockhead and Joseph Auner (New York: Routledge, 2002):119-140.
14. Roswitha Mueller, "Learning for a new society: the Lehrstück" in The Cambridge Companion to Brecht, eds. Peter Thomson and Glendyr Sacks (London: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 79-81.
15. Sheinberg, 43-49; 316-317. Her contextualization of "existential" irony in Shostakovich's late symphonies derives from Hegel's and Kirkegaard's approach to irony as the embodiment of the dialectical principle of negation.
16. A parodied element may reference a particular topic that indexes a stylistic convention, like the Dies Iraes motive that signifies death or the lamentoso bass line that triggers a Baroque-style tragic effect (Hatten, 61).
17. Ibid., 37-38.
18. The opera begins with the investigation of Rosa's mysterious death, followed by scenes that retrace the events that led to his murder.
19. For instance, the presence of the harmonica that doubles the melody was intended as a musical tribute to Ennio Morricone, the celebrated composer of spaghetti-westerns, which are in themselves parodies of Hollywood westerns. Morricone uses the harmonica as a recurring device in his musical setting of the film Once upon a time in the West.
20. Sheinberg, 23. In equipollent opposition, A vs. B, where A=not B and B=not A, neither poles are based on markedness.
21. Ibid., 146. In this case, the signals that efface the affect of "yearning" are multiple: the expressive marking "avec une grande emotion" that exaggerates the quoted motif and the incongruous juxtaposition of the grace-note figures that make a mockery through simulating laughter.
22. Ibid., 170. Hatten defines trope as "a species of creative growth that goes beyond the typical articulation of established types and their implied hierarchy. Troping akin to metaphor occurs when two different, formally unrelated types are brought together in the same functional location so as to spark an interpretation based on their interaction" (295).
23.Paul Griffiths, Peter Maxwell Davies (London: Robson Books, 1982), 67.
24. Davies provides the following commentary in the score: "In some ways, I regard the work as a collection of musical objects borrowed from many sources, functioning as musical 'stage props', around which the reciter's part weaves, lighting them from extraordinary angles, and throwing grotesque and distorted shadows from them, giving the musical 'objects' an unexpected and sometimes sinister significance."
25. Douglas C. Muecke, Irony and the Ironic (New York and London: Metheun, 1970), 28.
26. Griffiths 67. Foxtrots masquerade as pavanes even in a Purcell arrangement Davies made in 1968.
27. Muecke, 29.
28. In close approximation to Peter Burkholder's concept of cumulative form in Ives's music, the variations precede the full statement of the theme. See Peter J. Burkholder, All Made of Tunes: Charles Ives and the Uses of Musical Borrowing (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996).
29. Louis Andriessen, The Art of Stealing Time: Louis Andriessen, English translation by Clare Yates (East Sussex: Arc Music 2002), 329.
30. Hatten, 174-184.
31. For a more comprehensive discussion on intertextuality, see Michael Klein, Intertextuality in Western Art Music (Bloomington: Indiana University, 2005), 11-13.
32. Hal Foster, The Anti-Aesthetic (Seattle, WA: Bay Press, 1983), xii. In this vein, Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy (1966-7) stands out as one of the most provocative non-traditional opera that assimilates aspects of Greek tragedy, Baroque opera, and the Bach Passions.
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