1. Dika Newlin, Schoenberg Remembered: Diaries and Recollections (1938-76) (New York: Pendragon Press, 1980), 164.

2. Leonard Bernstein, The Joy of Music (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1959), 56.

3. Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons (London: Oxford University Press, 1947), 127.

4. Robert Philip, Early Recordings and Musical Style: Changing Tastes in Instrumental Performance, 1900-1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 230.

5. Lydia Goehr, The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: An Essay in the Philosophy of Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).

6. Stan Godlovitch, Musical Performance: A Philosophical Study (London: Routledge, 1998), 85.

7. Tim Page, ed., The Glenn Gould Reader (London: Faber and Faber, 1987), 351-52.

8. Richard Taruskin, Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 13.

9. Wallace Berry, Musical Structure and Performance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 10.

10. Peter Kivy, Authenticities: Philosophical Reflections on Musical Performance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995), 278.

11. Godlovitch, 81, quoting the Harvard Dictionary of Music (see also Kivy, Authenticitiesi, 282).

12. Lydia Goehr, "The Perfect Performance of Music and the Perfect Musical Performance," New Formations 27 (1996), 11.

13. Matthew Head, "Music with 'No Past'? Archaeologies of Joseph Haydn and The Creation," 19th-Century Music 23 (2000), 200; Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985), 32 and passim.

14. Michael Chanan, Musica Prattica (London: Verso, 1994).

15. Taruskin, Text and Act, 11.

16. Nick Kaye, Postmodernism and Performance (London: Macmillan, 1994), 22, 32, 117.

17. Robert L. Martin, "Musical Works in the Worlds of Performers and Listeners," in Michael Krausz, ed., The Interpretation of Music: Philosophical Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), 121, 123.

18. Martin, "Musical Works," 123; Christopher Small, Musicking: The Meanings of Performing and Listening (Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 1998), 51.

19. Small, Musicking, 11.

20. Michel Chion, Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), 103.

21. Taruskin, Text and Act, 24.

22. Jim Samson, "The Practice of Early-Nineteenth-Century Pianism," in The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000), 126. For Samson, the archetypal representatives of such fetishization are, respectively, Stravinsky and Busoni.

23. Harry White "'If It's Baroque, Don't Fix It': Reflections on Lydia Goehr's 'Work-Concept' and the Historical Integrity of Musical Composition," Acta Musicologica 59 (1997), 94-104; Michael Talbot, "The Work-Concept and Composer-Centredness," in The Musical Work, ed. Talbot, 168-186.

24. Bruno Nettl, The Study of Ethnomusicology: Twenty-nine Issues and Concepts (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 40.

25. Jimi Hendrix at the Atlanta Pop Festival (film by Jean Pellerin and Jonathan Seay, BMG Video International, 791 279 [1992]), recorded in July 1970.

26. Goehr, "Perfect Performance," 6, 14.

27. For an exemplary discussion of variants in Chopin, see Jeffrey Kallberg, Chopin at the Boundaries: Sex, History, and Musical Genre (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), chapter 7. It is worth adding that even a performer as closely associated (through Brahms) with the "opus" tradition as Clara Wieck/Schumann treated musical texts with the kind of flexibility that one might rather associate with the virtuoso tradition (see Valerie Goertzen, "Setting the Stage: Clara Schumann's Preludes," in In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation, ed. Bruno Nettl and Melinda Russell [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998], 237-60); the fact that such practices just failed to survive into the era of recording has given a false impression of the variety of attitudes to the notated text current in the nineteenth century.

28. Godlovitch, "Perfect Performance," 3.

29. Kivy, Authenticities, 131-3.

30. Ibid., 272.

31. More accurately, one might say that brand marketing dominates new releases, whereas composer- and repertory-oriented marketing dominates the back lists (and most music outside the central canon); I owe this observation, and others, to Uri Golomb, and would also like to acknowledge Tom Service's influence in exploring this field.

32. Kivy, Authenticities, 278.

33. Ibid., 280.

34. Ibid., 115. He also refers to "the performance (object)" (p. 261).

35. Ibid., 127.

36. Ibid., 131.

37. Ibid., 133.

38. Quoted in Elaine Aston and George Savona, Theatre as Sign-System: A Semiotics of Text and Performance (London: Routledge, 1991), 104.

39. Charles Bernstein, ed., Close Listening: Poetry and the Performed Word (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 21.

40. For a vivid account of what is at stake here, with particular reference to Shakespeare, see Gary Taylor, Reinventing Shakespeare: A Cultural History from the Restoration to the Present (London: Hogarth Press, 1989), chapter 6.

41. Nicholas Cook, "Music Minus One: Rock, Theory, and Performance," New Formations 27 (1996), 23-41.

42. Ingrid Monson, Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 186.

43. Such generalizations could of course benefit from historical refinement; for example, Philip stresses the much more heterogeneous ensemble of 1920s string quartets (with frequent and uncoordinated portamento) as compared with today's, and quotes the Vienna correspondent of the Musical Times writing in 1930 that "Toscanini's watchword is unconditional subordination of his men [the New York Orchestra]; the Vienna men [Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra] are given the liberty to 'sing' to their heart's content, to be co-ordinate, not subordinate to their leader" (Philip, 234, 233).

44. Goehr, "Perfect Performance," 11; Kivy, Authenticities, 264; Godlovitch, "Perfect Performance," 82.

45. Richard Schechner, Performance Theory, rev. ed. (New York: Routledge, 1998), 28.

46. While performance is an inherently intertextual practice, this argument applies with particular force to performance in the age of mechanical reproduction; it seems likely that the continued circulation of past performances, in the form of recordings, resulted in individual works acquiring increasingly diversified performance histories. One of the principal problems in writing the history of performance is the extent to which such individual "work histories" can be subsumed within a generalized "style history" (a point discussed by Jos� Bowen, with specific reference to tempo, in "Tempo, Duration, and Flexibility: Techniques in the Analysis of Performance," Journal of Musicological Research 16 (1996), 111-56); paradoxically, this suggests a context within which the work concept, comprehensively deconstructed as an aesthetic and analytical category, may need to be reinstated as a historical one.

47. Williamson, "The Musical Artwork and its Materials in the Music and Aesthetics of Busoni," in The Musical Work, ed. Talbot, 187.

48. Bernstein, ed., Close Listening, 10.

49. Godlovitch, "Perfect Performance," 96, almost repeating Small's remark about works being there to give performers something to perform.

50. Barbara Herrnstein Smith, "Narrative Versions, Narrative Theories," Critical Inquiry 7 (1980), 213-236; Charles Seeger, Studies in Musicology 1935-75 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 316. For further discussion, with references, see Nicholas Cook, "At the Borders of Musical Identity: Schenker, Corelli, and the Graces," Music Analysis 18 (1999), 309-12, and for a more recent invocation of family resemblances Richard Middleton, "Work-in-(g) Practice: Configuration of the Popular Music Intertext," in The Musical Work, ed. Talbot, 60.

51. Lawrence Rosenwald, "Theory, Text-setting, and Performance," Journal of Musicology 11 (1993), 62.

52. Charles Rosen, The Frontiers of Meaning: Three Informal Lectures on Music (New York: Hill and Wang, 1994), 89.

53. Schechner, Performance Theory, 70-73.

54. Bernstein, ed., Close Listening, 9.

55. David R. Shumway points out that, despite the fact that most popular music (including rock) is a studio creation, critics and audiences persist in conceiving recordings as reproduced performances ("Performance," in Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture, ed. Bruce Horner and Thomas Swiss [Malden, Mass.: Blackwells, 1999], 192); Gould saw Central European recordings of classical music as designed to create the illusion of live performance in a way that their more frankly studio-oriented Western European and American counterparts were not (Page, ed., Glenn Gould Reader, 333-4). In many popular music genres, and increasingly in WAM too, there is a further twist: the live performance becomes a reproduction of the recording, so paradoxically reinstating the performance "of" paradigm.

56. As well as "Tempo, Duration, and Flexibility," see his "Finding the Music in Musicology: Performance History and Musical Works," in Rethinking Music, ed. Nicholas Cook and Mark Everist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 424-51.

57. See, e.g., Joel Lester, "Performance and Analysis: Interaction and Interpretation," in The Practice of Performance: Studies in Musical Interpretation, ed. John Rink (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 197-216; Nicholas Cook, "The Conductor and the Theorist: Furtw�ngler, Schenker and the First Movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony," in Practice of Performance, ed. Rink, 105-25.

58. If it were as easy to derive an analysis from a performance as to match a performance to an analysis then one would at least be replicating only the orientation, and not the one-way direction, of Berry's path, but this is not the case; for a discussion see Nicholas Cook, "Words About Music, or Analysis Versus Performance," in Theory into Practice: Composition, Performance, and the Listening Experience, ed. Nicholas Cook, Peter Johnson, and Hans Zender (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1999), 48-49.

59. For a concrete illustration see Nicholas Cook, "Performing Rewriting and Rewriting Performance: The First Movement of Brahms's Piano Trio, Op. 8," Tijdschrift voor Muziektheorie 4 (1999), 227-34.

60. Susan Melrose, A Semiotics of the Dramatic Text (London: Macmillan, 1994), 215.

61. See for example Eric Clarke and Jane Davidson, "The Body in Performance," in Composition-Performance-Reception: Studies in the Creative Process in Music, ed. Wyndham Thomas (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 74-92.

62. Melrose, Semiotics of the Dramatic Text, 210. The same might also be said of such studies of dance as Janet Adshead, ed., Dance Analysis: Theory and Practice (London: Dance Books, 1988) and Graham McFee, Understanding Dance (London: Routledge, 1992), the second of which goes to extraordinary lengths to understand it in terms of Goodmanian notationality.

63. Bernstein, ed., Close Listening, 21.

64. Kaye, Postmodernism and Performance, 69; Simon Frith, "Editorial," New Formations 27 (1996), xi.

65. Serge Lacasse offers a taxonomy of such categories with specific reference to popular music, and introduces the useful concept of "transtylization": this is a measure of the degree of transformation involved in any particular intertextual practice, so that for example a tribute band "aims at a degr� z�ro of transtylization" ("Intertextuality and Hypertextuality in Recorded Popular Music," in The Musical Work, ed. Talbot, 54).

66. Melrose, Semiotics of the Dramatic Text, 225.

67. William Rothstein, "Analysis and the Act of Performance," in Practice of Performance, ed. Rink, 238, my italics.

68. Kevin Korsyn, "Beyond Privileged Contexts: Intertextuality, Influence, and Dialogue," in Rethinking Music, ed. Cook and Everist, 65.

69. Quoted in Korsyn, "Beyond Privileged Contexts," 61.

70. Middleton, "Work-in-(g) Practice," 73-6; Monson, Saying Something, 98-106. For a further invocation of Bakhtin in the context of performance analysis generally and jazz in particular, though focusing more on Bakhtin's concept of "utterance," see Jos� Bowen, "The History of Remembered Innovation: Tradition and its Role in the Relationship between Musical Works and their Performances," Journal of Musicology 11 (1993), 143-44.

71. Quoted and discussed in Monson, Saying Something, 103.

72. Jimi Plays Monterey (film by D. A. Pennebaker and Chris Hegedus, Rhino R3 2354 [NTSC], released in the UK as Jimi Hendrix Live at Monterey, BMG Video International, 791 192 [PAL]).

73. Michelle Kisliuk, "(Un)doing Fieldwork: Sharing Songs, Sharing Lives," in Shadows in the Field: New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology, ed. Gregory F. Barz and Timothy J. Cooley (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 33.

74. Jeff Todd Titon, "Knowing Fieldwork," in Shadows in the Field, ed. Barz and Cooley, 87.

75. Michelle Kisliuk, Seize the Dance! BaAka Musical Life and the Ethnography of Performance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

76. Titon, "Knowing Fieldwork," 96.

77. Baz Kershaw, The Politics of Performance: Radical Theatre as Cultural Intervention (London: Routledge, 1992), 22; Bernstein, ed., Close Listening, 14.

78. Bernstein, ed., Close Listening, 13.

79. Les Back, "Amount of Sat Siri Akal! Apache Indian, Reggae Music, and the Cultural Intermezzo," New Formations 27 (1996), 75.

80. Chris Smith, "Miles Davis and the Semiotics of Improvised Performance," in In the Course of Performance, ed. Nettl and Russell, 261-89.

81. John Potter, Vocal Authority: Singing Style and Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 182.

82.  Ibid., 180.

83. Ibid., 178.

84. Quoted and discussed in Peter Martin, Sounds and Society: Themes in the Sociology of Music (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), 100.

85. See Martin, Sounds and Society, 115.

End of footnotes