Example 3. Expressive analysis of mm. 34–44 of Beethoven’s Pathétique Sonata, second movement The dotted lines indicate the five-second segments rated. Data points between the dotted lines represent ratings for segments between the lines. Horizontal lines have been added tracking means across contigues segments for the purposes of easy comparison only; segments were rated in isolation and not continuously. Data points centered on the lines represent ratings for segments heard between the adjacent data points. Data have been normalized so that ratings are measured in standard deviations away from the mean for that emotion per participant.

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