**Example 5. **“Momma” in a lesson plan on metric modulation

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

- define Elliott Carter’s “metric modulation” or “tempo modulation”
- calculate tempo changes in a piece by Carter where metric modulation occurs
- compare Carter’s tempo shifts to another repertoire of music where tempo shifts occur

**5 min. Introductions**

Provide biographical information on Elliott Carter (if not previously provided).

Define the terms *metric modulation* and *tempo modulation*.

**30 min. Analyzing metric modulation in Elliott Carter**

Give a demonstration of how metric modulation works, and how to calculate it, in works by Elliott Carter (e.g., Roig-Francolí 2007 uses excerpts from String Quartet no.1 as examples).

**5 min. Metric modulation as a listening experience**

Ask students to respond to the question “What is the artistic effect of these metric modulations on you as a listener?” You might have an open discussion, or ask students to write for two minutes and then ask students to share (which gives them more time to think of a response).

**10 min. Tempo modulation in “Momma”**

Listen to “Momma,” either the whole song or an excerpt (2:24–4:07)

**AUDIO 1.12**

Explain to students that the tempo changes from approximately 85 bpm to 114 bpm from (3:35–3:59). Ask them to compare and contrast the artistic effect of this tempo modulation with the Carter pieces previously analyzed.