Example 12. Tunings from Biber’s Mystery Sonatas, arranged according to their distance from standard tuning (decreasing consistency, then increasing displacement). In this ranking, Sonatas 10 to 3 are quintal scordatura, and Sonatas 5 to 12 are chordal scordatura. Note that none of these scordatura expand the violin’s range by lowering the bottom string (cf. the tuning used by Haydn and Adams in Example 6b)